Epulis in Dogs: 5 Signs It Might Be Time For Surgery

As a dog owner, I’ve always believed that our furry companions are more than just pets; they’re family. So, when my beloved Max started showing signs of discomfort while eating, I knew I had to get to the bottom of it.

After a visit to our trusted vet, I was introduced to a term I had never heard before “epulis”. Like many of you, I was initially overwhelmed and filled with questions. What was this growth in Max’s mouth? Was it dangerous? How could I help him?

This journey led me to explore this topic further and I’m here to share everything I’ve learned with you fellow dog lovers.

What is Epulis?

Epulis is a common oral tumor found in dogs. These tumors are often firm and can vary in size. While they are non-cancerous, they can grow large enough to cause discomfort or interfere with a dog’s ability to eat.

Causes and Risk Factors

While the exact cause of this tumor is unknown, some factors can increase a dog’s risk. These include age, with older canines being more susceptible, and poor dental hygiene.

Breeds with shorter snouts, like bulldogs and boxers, might also be at a higher risk due to their dental structure.

5 common symptoms

1. Rapid Growth of the Tumor

Epulis Tumors Growth

A small epulis might not cause significant issues initially, but if you notice a sudden or rapid increase in its size, it’s a cause for concern. A rapidly growing tumor can obstruct your dog’s mouth, making it difficult for them to eat or breathe.

It can also push against adjacent teeth, leading to misalignment or other dental issues.

2. Bleeding or Ulceration

Healthy epulides are generally firm and non-bleeding. However, if the tumor starts to bleed or shows signs of ulceration (open sores), it’s an indication of tissue damage.

Such tumors can be painful for your dog and are more prone to infections, making surgical removal a priority. You should know about other types of cancer, such as the Dog lymphoma. Recognize the signs of time will significantly increase the chance for a recovery.

3. Difficulty Eating or Chewing

Dogs Eating

One of the primary functions affected by epulis is your dog’s ability to eat. If your dog is dropping food, showing reluctance to eat hard foods, or chewing only on one side of their mouth, it might be due to the discomfort caused by the tumor.

Weight loss or a decrease in appetite can be subsequent signs of this issue.

4. Visible Bone Loss or Tooth Displacement

In advanced cases, the epulis can invade the underlying bone structure, leading to bone loss. This can be detected through X-rays at the vet’s office.

Additionally, if you notice any of your dog’s teeth becoming displaced or misaligned, it’s a sign that the tumor is causing significant structural changes in the mouth, necessitating surgical intervention.

5. Persistent Bad Breath or Drooling

While bad breath can result from various causes, a persistent foul odor, especially when combined with other signs, can indicate an epulis or other oral issues.

Excessive drooling, especially if it’s blood-tinged, is another sign that there might be discomfort or pain in the mouth, pointing to the need for a surgical evaluation.

Diagnosis and Treatment Options

Before jumping to conclusions, it’s essential to get a proper diagnosis. Once confirmed, various treatment options can address the issue, ensuring your dog’s comfort and health.

Diagnostic Procedures

If you suspect your dog has an epulis, a visit to the veterinarian is in order. The vet will conduct a thorough oral examination. In some cases, a biopsy might be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

This involves taking a small tissue sample from the growth and examining it under a microscope. X-rays might also be taken to assess any potential bone involvement.

Non-Surgical and Surgical Treatments

For smaller tumors, non-surgical treatments like cryotherapy (freezing the tumor) might be recommended. However, for most epulides, especially those causing discomfort or complications, surgical removal is the best option.

The surgery involves excising the tumor and, in some cases, the affected tooth or teeth. Post-surgery, pain management and antibiotics might be prescribed to ensure a smooth recovery.

Post-Surgery Care and Recovery

Dogs After Surgery Recovery

After the surgery, your dog will need some special care to ensure a smooth recovery. Being aware of the post-operative care requirements will help your dog get back on its feet in no time.

Pain Management and Medications

Your veterinarian will likely prescribe pain medications to keep your dog comfortable after the surgery. It’s crucial to administer these as directed. Antibiotics might also be prescribed to prevent infections.

Ensure your dog completes the entire course, even if they seem to be feeling better.

Dietary Adjustments

After the surgery, your dog might find it challenging to eat their regular food. Offering soft foods or soaking their kibble in water can make it easier for them to eat. Monitor their eating habits and ensure they’re getting adequate nutrition during the recovery phase.

Prevention and Regular Check-ups

While you can’t entirely prevent epulis, regular dental check-ups and maintaining good oral hygiene can reduce the risk.

Regular Dental Care

Brushing your dog’s teeth, providing dental chews, and ensuring a balanced diet can help maintain good oral health. Regular dental cleanings by a veterinarian can also help in the early detection and prevention of various oral issues, including epulis.

Routine Vet Visits

Regular vet visits are crucial, not just for oral health but for overall well-being. A routine check-up can help in the early detection of various health issues, ensuring timely intervention and treatment.


Can epulis turn cancerous over time?

No, they do not have the potential to metastasize or spread to other parts of the body. However, it’s essential to differentiate them from other types of oral tumors, some of which can be malignant.

A biopsy is the best way to confirm the nature of the tumor.

Are certain dog breeds more prone to developing epulis?

While epulis can develop in any dog breed, breeds with shorter snouts like bulldogs, boxers, and Boston terriers might be at a slightly higher risk due to their dental structure.

However, age and dental hygiene are more significant factors in the development of epulis than breed alone.

How long is the recovery period after the surgery?

The recovery period can vary based on the size and location of the tumor and the overall health of the dog. Generally, most dogs start to feel better within a few days after the surgery.

However, it might take a couple of weeks for complete healing, especially if the surgery is extensive. Always follow your veterinarian’s post-operative care instructions to ensure a smooth recovery.

Can epulis recur after surgical removal?

While surgical removal of epulis is usually effective, there is a possibility of recurrence, especially if the entire tumor wasn’t removed during the surgery. Regular check-ups and monitoring of the surgical site can help in early detection if there’s a recurrence.

Is there any way to prevent this tumor?

While there’s no guaranteed way to prevent epulis, maintaining good oral hygiene can reduce the risk. Regular teeth brushing, providing dental chews, and ensuring a balanced diet can help.

Additionally, routine dental cleanings and check-ups by a veterinarian can aid in early detection and management.

Are there any alternative treatments to surgery?

Surgery is the most common and effective treatment for epulis, especially for larger tumors. However, for smaller tumors, treatments like cryotherapy (freezing the tumor) might be considered.

It’s essential to discuss with your veterinarian the best treatment option based on the size, location, and type of epulis your dog has.


My journey with Max and Epulis tumors taught me the importance of vigilance, early detection, and timely intervention. While he has now fully recovered post-surgery, I realize the significance of sharing this knowledge.

I hope this guide has shed light on the topic, helping you make informed decisions for your furry family member. Remember, our pets rely on us, and with the right information and care, we can ensure they lead happy, healthy lives.